China's energy strategic transformation in the hot

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The transformation of China's energy strategy in the low-carbon era

the transformation of energy is a key link in the country's economic transformation and an important symbol of social progress. Realizing a low-carbon and orderly energy structure is the fundamental of China's energy strategic positioning

China's low energy efficiency and serious pollution are not caused by insufficient technical force to some extent, but by unreasonable system and imperfect market mechanism. The lack of institutional track for technological innovation to support industrial development has prevented the widespread adoption of a large number of efficient and clean energy technologies

energy is the food of industry or even the blood of modern industry, but it continues to release huge external effects. Energy has a greater impact on the environment than other industries. In China, the development and utilization of traditional energy sources such as coal industry, oil and thermal power has carried the miracle of China's economic take-off for nearly 30 years, but it has also greatly affected the natural ecological home we rely on for survival

therefore, the development of energy structure towards diversification and balance is not only the core issue of energy strategic transformation, but also the rational choice of national economic macro strategy towards sustainable development. The central economic work conference held in December 2009 clearly listed the adjustment of economic structure as one of the six tasks of 2010

China's energy structure dominated by coal

the characteristics of resource occurrence fundamentally determine that China has maintained the characteristics of energy consumption structure dominated by coal for a long time

compared with 1952, in 2008, the proportion of coal in China's total primary energy consumption fell from 95% to 68 7%, oil consumption from 3 37% to 18%, natural gas consumption from 0 2% to 3 The proportion of hydropower, nuclear power and wind power in the energy consumption structure increased from 1 61% to 9.5%

the structure of energy production is also basically the same. Among them, traditional energy accounts for an absolute proportion, especially coal production, which has remained at about 76% of the energy production structure in the eight years since 2002; The second is oil. China's crude oil production in the energy production structure is basically about 12%. In the secondary energy, whether the consumption structure or production structure, coal-fired power generation is basically the dominant energy

on the whole, China's energy production and consumption show the structural characteristics of rich coal, lack of oil, less gas, and shortage of new energy. Obviously, the negative externalities of this energy structure dominated by low calorific value fossil fuels have a significant impact on the environment

the development trend of China's energy diversification

at present, the trend of China's energy diversification is mainly manifested in three situations:

the basic energy system forms a diversified development trend

by promoting the leap forward development of clean gas energy such as natural gas and coalbed methane, the energy system is promoted to transform from the structural characteristics based on coal to kerosene gas. This is an important direction for the reform of China's energy system during the Eleventh Five Year Plan period, which will not only affect the imbalance of the jaws, but also an inevitable choice for China to realize the diversification strategy of the basic energy system

China has a good resource base to open the era of gas energy. At present, China's proven natural gas reserves are 2 6 trillion cubic meters, with an estimated recoverable reserve of billion cubic meters. At the same time, China is rich in coalbed methane resources, which is the richest reserve country of coalbed methane with high quality and low price. The latest resource exploration results show that the total amount of coalbed methane geological resources buried at a depth of less than 2000 meters in China is 36 trillion cubic meters, of which the recoverable reserves reach 10 trillion cubic meters, ranking third in the world

obviously, China already has sufficient resource base and transformation conditions to rely on the independent supply of sea and land gas energy and promote the leapfrog development of gas energy

the energy structure presents a low-carbon and diversified pattern

more than 60 auto parts in the founding of the people's Republic of China need to use universal tensile testing machines, mainly including: rubber products on automobiles over the years, with the development of the national economy and society, especially driven by technological progress, China's primary energy consumption structure has steadily realized the transformation from coal to kerosene and gas. At the same time, new energy The proportion of renewable energy has also increased significantly

compared with the energy structure in 1952, as of 2008, the proportion of coal in China's total primary energy consumption has decreased from 95% to 68.7%, the proportion of oil and natural gas consumption is 21.8%, and the proportion of clean and renewable energy such as hydropower, nuclear power and wind power is close to 10%

although there are still various uncertainties in the future energy situation, China's energy consumption structure is tending to be fully diversified

recently, the relevant national departments are studying and formulating the 12th Five Year Plan for new energy development. It is understood that the proposed new energy industry plan requires that the proportion of new energy in total energy consumption be increased from the current level to about 12% - 13% during the 12th Five Year Plan period, and the proportion of new energy in the energy structure will reach 15% by 2020. The installed capacity targets of wind power generation, solar power generation and nuclear power generation will be significantly adjusted, which will greatly promote the new energy industry

among the new and renewable energy sources that have initially achieved industrialization, the development of solar energy and photovoltaic energy is extremely important. China has become a major producer of solar cells. By the end of 2008, the output of solar cells in China had reached 1000MW, ranking first in the world. In 2009, the output of solar cells has reached 2800m W, and the space for development and utilization is still huge. In addition, the revitalization of nuclear power has also become one of the priorities of the diversified development of energy in the new era

the development of energy forms a regional diversification strategy

in recent years, in China's energy development, not only the layout diversification pattern of domestic development has been formed, but also the diversification trend of investment and development strategic layout has gradually formed in the international energy development. Diversification in energy development is accelerating the transformation from domestic development to domestic and international development mode

the current situation of China's oil and gas resources shortage and relatively rich coal resources fundamentally determines that the development of China's oil industry [12.84 -0.62% depends on domestic development in the past, and the mode of relying on foreign imports must be broken. Especially today, when oil resources are increasingly seriously affecting national security, China's oil industry has undergone a historic change: accelerating the transformation from domestic development to domestic and international development

with the continuous expansion of international strategic space, China has actively participated in the collective chorus of the international energy and resource market. At present, China's international cooperation in energy has gradually expanded from oil and natural gas to natural uranium, coal, electricity, wind energy, biofuels, energy technology and equipment, etc; So far, China has established bilateral energy cooperation mechanisms with 36 countries

In addition, in recent years, Chinese energy enterprises have carried out fruitful cooperation in the exploration, development and utilization of overseas energy resources through flexible ways such as sole proprietorship, joint venture, equity participation, mergers and acquisitions

the transformation goal of China's energy strategy

from a strategic point of view, the energy challenges facing China involve no more than two contradictions:

first, the contradiction between the limited supply of energy and the expanding energy demand of economic development. This is an economic problem, which requires us to think about how to design and effectively implement the system to meet the sustained and rapid economic growth with limited energy

the second is the contradiction between the massive use of energy and the increasing environmental situation. This is a social problem, which requires us to balance economic needs and choose the combination of social goals. We should try our best to reduce or even avoid the environmental losses and social welfare losses caused by energy use

in the face of energy challenges, the state has proposed to change the economic growth mode of energy and resources in accordance with the requirements of the scientificoutlookondevelopment, put forward the call for energy conservation and emission reduction and the effective use of resources, and formulate a series of relevant economic regulations and laws in law to prevent high consumption High pollution has played a strong role in strengthening the cultural and sports tourism work between China and Mongolia from the source

for this reason, in recent years, the following strategic transformation and development changes have quietly taken place in China's energy field:

from high-cost extensive energy utilization to intensive energy utilization.

with the continuous improvement of China's market-oriented level, the market-oriented mechanism is gradually improving, and the mode of economic growth is changing from the extensive mode relying on planning to the intensive mode relying on the market. Under the guidance of this historical trend, great changes have taken place in the concept and way of government management of the economy, especially in recent years, a series of policies have been issued for the optimization of industrial structure and the development of the energy industry, which not only effectively promoted the upgrading and change of the national industrial level, restrained the high energy consuming industry, but also put the energy industry on the track of collective energy conservation and consumption reduction and emission reduction

this is the yield point, especially the construction of coal industry base and the establishment of scale barriers for resource enterprises, which make the scale structure of coal industry tend to improve and greatly improve the energy utilization rate. Recently, the most controversial issue is the integration of coal resources in Shanxi Province, which presents a dilemma: whether to improve the scale, save energy and protect the environment, or whether to challenge the market fairness of property rights. In fact, from the essence of the energy industry, it is necessary to improve the concentration of the coal industry, and it is inevitable to be economical if it has the necessary scale. It is important to use efficient institutional arrangements and establish a strict economic order to achieve the goal of energy improvement through market rules

in addition, technological innovation plays a driving role in promoting energy conservation and energy efficiency. Equipment technology has achieved leapfrog development and promoted the great liberation of energy productivity. Today, China has made historic and considerable progress in energy mining and processing, power transmission and distribution technology, energy conservation and energy efficiency technology, overcome a series of technical difficulties, built a large number of domestic equipment, developed a large number of domestic instruments, and mastered and constructed a series of energy theoretical systems

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