The hottest human-machine interface design of IETM

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Research on IETM human-machine interface design of equipment maintenance based on human factors

Abstract: the design of IETM human-machine interface of equipment maintenance is an important part of human-machine engineering in equipment maintenance, and its core is how to display the massive technical information stored on the limited screen, so as to finally achieve human-machine integration. Therefore, when designing the IETM man-machine interface of equipment maintenance, it is necessary to organize the interface based on the theory of human factors, with human cognitive characteristics as constraints, and with the elements of interface display as variables, so as to make the IETM of equipment maintenance meet the requirements of users to the greatest extent

key words: equipment maintenance; IETM; Interface design

interactive electronictechnicalmanual (IETM) for equipment maintenance is an information data package for the diagnosis and maintenance of weapon systems or military and commercial equipment. Its essence is a digital technical manual that provides technical information to equipment maintenance or operators. For a long time, due to the influence of the traditional function based concept, the only standard for people to evaluate the quality of application software is whether it has powerful functions and can meet the needs of users. However, the design of man-machine interface is often not valued by software developers, and the equipment maintenance IETM is also facing the same problem. As we all know, only through the study and understanding of equipment technical information can people be familiar with and control equipment. In this sense, the technical manual has become a link to realize the organic combination of people and equipment. Technical manuals were originally stored on paper. The arrival of the information age not only makes a large increase in various technical data of equipment, but also requires that the technical information of equipment must meet the requirements of rapid search and use and long-distance technical support. Therefore, the technical manual with paper as the storage medium is not up to the task of the times. With the development of computer technology, interactive electronic technical manuals gradually appear, and its digital storage method brings many conveniences. It has become a must in history to replace paper technical manuals

however, although computers can store a large amount of technical information, the space displayed on their screens is limited. With the rapid development of information technology, the requirements of IETM human-machine interface for equipment maintenance have undergone changes such as high-tech, naturalization and humanization. At the same time, when using computers to store a large amount of technical information, the overall situation of the information cannot be displayed on the screen with limited scale. Even if the technical information is highlighted, the screen is often stretched. The existence of this problem requires optimizing the interface and weakening the contradiction

1. Basic principles of IETM human-machine interface design for equipment maintenance

ergonomics is a discipline that studies the interaction between human and machine to achieve the best efficiency. According to the viewpoint of ergonomics, human and machine have their own advantages and disadvantages. Machine is a tool for human to complete a task. When a machine needs human intervention to complete a task, the design of the machine must be suitable for the user's use requirements, so that people and machines can give full play to their respective advantages at the same time. Aviation maintenance IETM human-machine interface design is a part of ergonomics, that is, how to make the development of technology revolve around the needs of people, take people as the starting point of product and environmental design, and make its performance, operation method, appearance, color, etc. better adapt to and meet the physiological and psychological needs of human beings, so as to make maintenance personnel safer, more convenient and comfortable in work, and work more efficiently. In the general human-machine interface design, developers often pay more attention to the usefulness design and efficiency design of the interface, while ignoring the needs of users. For a man-machine interface, functions and characteristics should be reflected by users. If human factors are not taken into account, it is difficult to truly reflect the functions of the system. As shown in Figure L, the research methods and evaluation means of IETM human-machine interface for equipment maintenance involve many fields such as psychology, physiology, medicine, anthropometry, aesthetics and engineering technology. This paper mainly studies the design of IETM human-machine interface for equipment maintenance from the perspective of human-machine harmony

2. Understanding of users in equipment maintenance IETM

the most important principle in equipment maintenance IETM human-machine interface design is to understand the users of products. Only in this way can we provide users with a usable product. The basic idea of user oriented equipment maintenance IETM man-machine interface design is to put users in the first place in all processes at all times. In the initial stage of product life cycle, the basic motivation and ultimate goal of product strategy should be to meet the needs of users. In the subsequent process of product design and development, the research and understanding of users should be used as the basis for various decisions. At the same time, the evaluation information of products at all stages should also come from the feedback of users. So the concept of user is the center of the whole design

in short, users refer to the people who use the product. From this simple definition, it is not difficult to see that the concept of user includes two meanings:

① user is a part of human beings. Users have the common characteristics of human beings, and users will reflect these characteristics in all aspects when using any product. Human behavior is not only influenced by human basic abilities such as visual and auditory perception, ability to analyze and solve problems, memory and response to stimuli, but also restricted by psychological and personality orientation, physical and cultural environment, educational environment and previous experience

② users are users of products. The people of user centered design and evaluation research are special groups related to product use. They may be current users, future users or even potential users of the product. The behavior of these people in the process of using products will also be closely related to some product related features. For example, for the knowledge of the target product, expect to use the functions completed by the target product, the basic skills required to use the target product, and the time and frequency of using the target product in the future

therefore, the study of users should start from the general human attributes of users and special attributes related to products. It can be seen that the user centered interface design not only applies the methods of natural sciences such as biology and statistics, but also relies on the help of humanities such as psychology and sociology. These theories constitute an interdisciplinary subject about human factors, also known as humanfactors. The general theories and methods of human factors can be used in human and systems including human machine interaction

3. Human factors based equipment maintenance IETM machine interface design

as an electronic display system, people need to interact with it through the equipment maintenance IETM man-machine interface to meet the requirements of finding, searching for related technologies or obtaining help. This interactive process can be summarized in Figure 2

based on this model, it can be seen that people are coupled with computer processing systems through interactive interfaces. If the coupling degree is high, the degree of man-machine integration is high, and the efficiency and effect of equipment maintenance IETM man-machine interface are good. Therefore, when designing IETM man-machine interface for equipment maintenance, the designed man-machine interface should not only meet the precise and fast characteristics of computer, but also conform to human physiological characteristics and cognitive laws. It is human perception, cognition and reaction that have an impact on finding relevant information and the actual IETM interface

(1) human sensory search

on the problem of human perception, people will scan the specific characteristics of the environment to actively find the emerging target. False alarms are often generated when people encounter interference when searching for targets (transferring people's attention from target stimuli to non target stimuli). Not only does the amount of interference affect the difficulty of the target search task, but also when the interference has no distinguishing characteristics from the target (such as color, size, similarity with similar items, gap with different items, or vertical and horizontal tilt in direction), we can only conduct joint search, or the search speed slows down

human factors cannot be changed or in a short time. In the design of IETM man-machine interface for equipment maintenance, try to make the expression of various contents of IETM man-machine interface for equipment maintenance on the computer interface consistent with the sensory characteristics of. When the paper manual is transformed into IETM, the storage and display methods of the technical information content contained in it have undergone fundamental changes. The way of interface display must be consistent with people's understanding and operation behavior, so that the interface has a strong affinity, so that equipment maintenance or operators can happily and efficiently use the interactive electronic technical manual. According to people's cognitive characteristics, the principles that should be followed are as follows

The formats that can be displayed in the interface can be text, vector diagram, image, audio and video. For a single performance format, the following principles are established according to the characteristics of human sensory search and the research results of ergonomics

the principle of location selection: on a plane, the upper part makes people relaxed and comfortable, while the lower part makes people stable and depressed. Similarly, the left half of the plane makes people relaxed and comfortable internationally, and the right half makes people stable and depressed. Therefore, the visual influence of the plane is stronger above than below, and the left side is stronger than the right side. In this way, the upper and middle upper parts of the plane are called the best field of view, which is also the most preferred place. Therefore, the most important technical information should be placed in the upper left corner, and then arranged from left to right and from top to bottom according to people's reading habits

size selection principle: generally, the size of the text appearing in the interface can be determined by the formula suggested by Peter and Adams:

h=0.0022d+25.4 (k1+k2)

where h is the height of the target (mm); D is the distance between the human eye and the target (mm); K1 is the system related to the importance of content, which is taken as 0 in general and 0.075 in important cases; K2 is the coefficient related to lighting conditions, taking 0.06, 0.16 and 0.26 respectively according to the lighting conditions as good, good and general

the width of the text is in proportion to the height, and its width can be calculated according to table 1

the principle of color stimulus selection: first, the choice of color. The interface of IETM is mainly practical. And when using, there is often a time limit, and the operator should quickly find the relevant information. Therefore, its color needs to be natural. In general, the choice of color is based on a light color background, with dark words or dark icons. For the content to be emphasized, a small amount of bright colors should be used. These colored highlights will have a strong visual impact, but they can't be used too much. More will form a kind of uniform noise, which cannot achieve the effect of emphasis. Thirdly, the choice of hue. Wartime will increase people's psychological load. In this case, the use of IETM with dark tones may cause greater psychological barriers and errors. Therefore, the tone of IETM interface should be consistent with the mood of users, and show a fine and solemn situation. The artistic content of color selection is very high

principle of comprehensive expression: sometimes, a display format is difficult to fully express its meaning. Several formats are often used at the same time. For example, if words are difficult to express, an icon can fully express; Icons also have disadvantages. For example, icons are difficult to express knowledge about actions. Audio will bring different meanings, which is easy to misunderstand; video

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